Wednesday, November 5, 2014
Student Project-Struktur Mikroskopis Kelenjar Saliva dan Perannya dalam Menjaga Kesehatan Rongga Mulut
Student Project Blok Basic Denstistry PSPDG FK UNUD -Tonsil.pdf
Tuesday, October 14, 2014
Powerpoint ini dipresentasikan pada tanggal 15 Oktober 2014 untuk mahasiswa PSPDG FK UNUD .
Wednesday, September 3, 2014
Sunday, July 14, 2013
Pengantar praktikum histology bisa dibaca pada alamat/ link ini :
Monday, April 29, 2013
Sunday, April 28, 2013
Saturday, April 27, 2013
Mammalian neurons usually do not divide, and their degeneration represents a permanent loss. Peripheral nerve fibers can regenerate if their perikaryons are not destroyed.
In contrast to nerve cells, neuroglia of the central nervous system—and Schwann cells and ganglionic satellite cells of the peripheral nervous system—are able to divide by mitosis. Spaces in the central nervous system left by nerve cells lost by disease or injury are invaded by neuroglia.
Because nerves are widely distributed throughout the body, they are often injured. When a nerve axon is transected, degenerative changes take place, followed by a reparative phase.
In a wounded nerve fiber, it is important to distinguish the changes occurring in the proximal segment from those in the distal segment. The proximal segment maintains its continuity with the trophic center (perikaryon) and frequently regenerates. The distal segment, separated from the nerve cell body, degenerates.
Axonal injury causes several changes in the perikaryon: chromatolysis, ie, dissolution of Nissl substances with a consequent decrease in cytoplasmic basophilia; an increase in the volume of the perikaryon; and migration of the nucleus to a peripheral position in the perikaryon.
In the nerve stub distal to the injury, both the axon and the myelin sheath degenerate completely, and their remnants, excluding their connective tissue and perineurial sheaths, are removed by macrophages. While these regressive changes take place, Schwann cells proliferate within the remaining connective tissue sleeve, giving rise to solid cellular columns. These rows of Schwann cells serve as guides to the sprouting axons formed during the reparative phase.
After the regressive changes, the proximal segment of the axon grows and branches, forming several filaments that progress in the direction of the columns of Schwann cells. Only fibers that penetrate these Schwann cell columns will continue to grow and reach an effector organ.
The choroid plexus consists of invaginated folds of pia mater, rich in dilated fenestrated capillaries, that penetrate the interior of the brain ventricles. It is found in the roofs of the third and fourth ventricles and in part in the walls of the lateral ventricles.
The choroid plexus is composed of loose connective tissue of the pia mater, covered by a simple cuboidal or low columnar epithelium made of ion-transporting cells .
The main function of the choroid plexus is to elaborate cerebrospinal fluid, which contains only a small amount of solids and completely fills the ventricles, central canal of the spinal cord, subarachnoid space, and perivascular space. Cerebrospinal fluid is important for the metabolism of the central nervous system and acts as a protective device against mechanical shocks.
Cerebrospinal fluid is clear, has a low density (1.004–1.008 g/ mL), and is very low in protein content. A few desquamated cells and two to five lymphocytes per milliliter are also present. Cerebrospinal fluid is continuously produced and circulates through the ventricles, from which it passes into the subarachnoid space. There, arachnoid villi provide the main pathway for absorption of cerebrospinal fluid into the venous circulation.
The blood–brain barrier is a functional barrier that prevents the passage of some substances, such as antibiotics and chemical and bacterial toxic matter, from the blood to nerve tissue.
The blood–brain barrier results from the reduced permeability that is characteristic of blood capillaries of nerve tissue. Occluding junctions, which provide continuity between the endothelial cells of these capillaries, represent the main structural component of the barrier. The cytoplasm of these endothelial cells does not have the fenestrations found in many other locations, and very few pinocytotic vesicles are observed. The expansions of neuroglial cell processes that envelop the capillaries (astrocytes) are partly responsible for their low permeability.
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